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膜結構停車棚的防火措施有哪些?
來源:http://www.baokangjixie88.com/ 發布時間:2021-11-15
1、采取特殊的防火、防煙分隔措施。膜結構停車棚相對于普通建筑,在主體大空間內無構造柱與梁,是一個連續完整的空間。膜空間和與之相連的部分之間須設置有效的防火分隔設施,防止火勢向膜空間以外的其它空間蔓延。用普通建筑中的防火墻和防火卷簾劃分防火分區難以實現。我們可以采取一些特殊措施,例如可以采用“防火帶”的方法劃分防火分區,即在有可燃物品的建筑物中劃分出一段區域,這個區域內的建筑構件及裝修全部為非燃材料并采取有效的防煙措施,阻擋防火帶一側的煙火向另一側蔓延,從而在空間上形成一個無形的防火分隔區域。對于防煙分區的劃分,可以利用空間上方結構體系,掛上以耐火纖維為基材的輕質幕布,平時卷起,在火災報警后自動放下,懸停于一定高度進行防煙分區,劃分的面積在1000 平方米左右,代替了傳統的擋煙垂壁,效果明顯。
1. Special fire and smoke separation measures shall be taken. Compared with ordinary buildings, the membrane structure parking shed is a continuous and complete space without structural columns and beams in the main space. Effective fire separation facilities shall be set between the membrane space and its connected parts to prevent the fire from spreading to other spaces other than the membrane space. It is difficult to divide fire zones with firewalls and fire rolling shutters in ordinary buildings. We can take some special measures. For example, we can use the method of "fire belt" to divide the fire compartment, that is, divide a section of the building with combustible materials. The building components and decoration in this area are all non combustible materials, and take effective smoke prevention measures to prevent the spread of fireworks on one side of the fire belt to the other side, Thus, an invisible fire separation area is formed in the space. For the division of smoke prevention zones, the structural system above the space can be used to hang a light curtain with refractory fiber as the base material, which can be rolled up at ordinary times, automatically put down after the fire alarm, and hover at a certain height for smoke prevention zones. The divided area is about 1000 square meters, which replaces the traditional smoke retaining vertical wall, and the effect is obvious.
2、機械防排煙設施。對于封閉的膜結構停車棚,設置機械防排煙設施是至關重要的,煙氣往往比火更可怕,在火災中,煙氣彌漫,能見度低,延誤了疏散時間;大量高溫有毒氣體的存在,使人降低和逐漸喪失了逃生能力;高溫煙氣有著與火一樣的對建筑結構破壞的作用。就膜結構停車棚來說,其防火分區面積和疏散距離都已超標,所以對這類建筑的大空間進行有效的防排煙設計顯得由為重要。一是控煙,通過一定的正壓送風量將火災煙氣吹向一個固定的空間內,使煙氣不會無規則擴散;二是蓄煙,利用建筑物自身的大空間條件設計“儲煙倉”將煙氣蓄積,形成距地面有一定高度的無煙層;第三是排煙。國內研究機構通過計算機模擬證明:如果一個煙控系統設計適當,可以防止煙在30~45min 內聚集在距地面3~4m處。這段時間對于人員疏散是非常寶貴的,同時也給滅火創造了有利條件。
2. Mechanical smoke control facilities. For the closed membrane structure parking shed, it is very important to set up mechanical smoke control and exhaust facilities. The smoke is often more terrible than fire. In the fire, the smoke is diffuse and the visibility is low, which delays the evacuation time; The existence of a large number of high-temperature toxic gases reduces people's ability to escape and gradually loses their ability to escape; High temperature flue gas has the same effect on building structure damage as fire. As for the membrane structure parking shed, its fire compartment area and evacuation distance have exceeded the standard, so it is important to carry out effective smoke control design for the large space of this kind of building. First, smoke control, blowing the fire smoke into a fixed space through a certain positive pressure air supply volume, so that the smoke will not diffuse irregularly; Second, smoke storage, using the large space conditions of the building itself to design a "smoke storage bin" to store the smoke and form a smoke-free layer with a certain height from the ground; The third is smoke exhaust. Through computer simulation, domestic research institutions have proved that if a smoke control system is properly designed, it can prevent smoke from gathering 3 ~ 4m away from the ground in 30 ~ 45min. This period of time is very valuable for personnel evacuation and creates favorable conditions for fire fighting.
膜結構體育館
3、運用新型的火災探測系統。膜結構停車棚空間很高,煙氣在上升過程中不斷受到冷卻和稀釋,在到達頂棚時濃度和溫度都大大降低,不足以啟動火災探測器。另外,由于膜結構停車棚內部熱風壓影響,大空間上部常常會形成一定厚度的熱空氣層,它足以阻止火災煙氣上升到大空間頂棚,從而影響火災探測器工作,所以普通型探測器是不適用于膜建筑的。運用新型的火災報警技術如紅外光束感煙探測器、空氣采樣及線型差溫探測器運用于膜結構停車棚,解決了膜空間早期報警的難題。
3. Use a new fire detection system. The space of membrane structure parking shed is very high, and the flue gas is continuously cooled and diluted in the rising process. When it reaches the ceiling, the concentration and temperature are greatly reduced, which is not enough to start the fire detector. In addition, due to the influence of hot air pressure inside the membrane structure parking shed, a certain thickness of hot air layer is often formed in the upper part of the large space, which is enough to prevent the fire smoke from rising to the large space ceiling, thus affecting the work of the fire detector. Therefore, the ordinary detector is not suitable for membrane buildings. New fire alarm technologies such as infrared beam smoke detector, air sampling and linear differential temperature detector are used in membrane structure parking shed to solve the problem of early alarm in membrane space.
4、采用有效的自動滅火裝置。設置空氣加壓移動式消防水炮。它可根據空氣加壓的大小確定射程,確保膜空間及其中部區域的安全。
4. Adopt effective automatic fire extinguishing device. Set air pressurized mobile fire water monitor. It can determine the range according to the size of air pressurization to ensure the safety of membrane space and its middle area.
今天的分享就是關于膜結構體育館,更多的內容小編會不斷的再此分享,更多的內容請繼續關注我們:http://www.baokangjixie88.com
Today's sharing is about the membrane structure gymnasium. More content will be shared here again. Please continue to pay attention to us: http://www.baokangjixie88.com
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